Description of Blueberries
     The Vaccinieae are easily recognized because they possess a 
distinctive combination of synapomorphic features, i.e., anther tubules 
(char. #62, also found in parallel in a few Gaultherieae), an inferior 
ovary (char.#72; Fig. 29), and indehiscent, brightly colored fruits 
(chars. #78,82),i.e., usually berries, but drupes in Gaylussacia. It 
is worth noting that fleshy, colorful fruits (either drupes or berries)
have also evolved in some Styphelioideae (i.e., Styphelieae), some 
Gaultherieae, Empetreae, and Arbutoideae (Fig. 30), likely in 
connection with a shift from wind to bird dispersal. Generic 
relationships within Vaccinieae are very problematic (Kron et al., 
1999a; Luteyn, 1996) and are currently being investigated by Kron 
and Luteyn.
Vaccinieae Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs. 1(3): 203. 1831. – Type  
genus: Vaccinium L.
  Thibaudieae Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 2: 564. 1876.
  Vacciniiae Klotzsch, Monatsber. Königl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. 
    Berlin 1857: 4. 1857 (as Vaccinieae).
     Shrubs, small trees, or lianas, often epiphytic, evergreen or 
deciduous, with, non-ericoid entire or serrate leaves, convolute in bud.
Leaf epidermal cells not lignified. Indumentum of short- to long-stalked
glandular or non-glandular hairs. Inflorescence usually axillary, rarely
terminal, paniculate, racemose or fasciculate, or solitary axillary 
flowers; bracts present, bracteoles usually paired, variable in 
position; calyx articulated with the pedicel or not. Flowers usually 
4- or 5-merous, rarely 3 or 6-7-merous, actinomorphic. Calyx lobes small
to large, persistent, the calyx winged or not; corolla almost always 
sympetalous, usually urceolate or tubular, sometimes winged, the lobes 
small to large; stamens 5—10(-14), the filaments ± straight, sometimes 
connate, unicellular pubescent, roughened, or smooth, sometimes spurred 
(with either one spur or, more commonly, a pair of spurs) on the 
anther-filament junction; anthers slightly to clearly roughened, usually
lacking disintegration tissue, usually with tubules, dehiscing by pores 
or slit-like pores at the end of the tubules. Ovary (3-)4—5(-7)-locular,
or 10-locular due to secondary division of each locule, with axile 
placentation, inferior; style impressed; stigma ± truncate. Fruit 
fleshy, a berry or 10-pitted drupe; seeds with short to elongate testa 
cells; embryo with 2 cotyledons.
  [Anthopteropsis A. C. Sm.; Anthopterus Hook.; Cavendishia Lindl.; 
Ceratostema Juss.; Costera J. J. Sm.; Demosthenesia A.C. Sm.;
Didonica Luteyn & Wilbur; Dimorphanthera F. Muell.; Diogenesia
Sleumer; Disterigma (Klotzsch) Nied.; Gaylussacia Kunth, Fig.104; 
Gonocalyx Planch. & Lindl.; Lateropora A. C. Sm.; Macleania
Hook.; Mycerinus A. C. Sm.; Notopora Hook. f.; Oreanthes Benth.; 
Orthaea Klotzsch; Paphia Seem.; Pellegrinia Sleumer; Plutarchia A. C. 
Sm.; Polyclita A. C. Sm.; Psammisia Klotzsch; Rusbya Britton; Satyria 
Klotzsch; Semiramisia Klotzsch; Siphonandra Klotzsch; Sphyrospermum 
Poepp. & Endl.; Themistoclesia Klotzsch; Thibaudia Ruíz & Pavon; 
Utleya Wilbur & Luteyn; Vaccinium L.; [Note – the monophyly of most 
of the above genera has not been rigorously assessed.]
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Key to Blueberries
Phylogenetic trees of Blueberries